Sumer or Sumeria was one of the ancient civilizations and historical regions in southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. The Sumerians were the first Mesopotamian civilization. They lived in independent walled city-states. Uruk, the first and one of the largest cities in Mesopotamia.
The Sumerians are thought to have formed the first human civilization in world history. Sumer was the birthplace of writing, the wheel, agriculture, the arch, the plow, irrigation and many other innovations. The Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia built city walls and temples and dug canals that were the world’s first engineering works.
The actual language of the Sumerians was superseded rather early by Akkadian … who was neither Jew nor Arab but a resident of the city of Ur in Mesopotamia. The god Ea (whose Sumerian equivalent was Enki) is one of the three most powerful gods in the Mesopotamian pantheon, along with Anu and Enlil.